Cardiology, a sub-specialty of internal medicine, focuses on the prevention and diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases, as well as their conservative and interventional treatment. Coronary Heart Disease (CHD) presents a major health issue, which in Germany alone affects around 3 million people. The diagnosis, treatment and aftercare of angina pectoris, heart attacks and infarct induced myasthenias have grown to become the principal tasks for most cardiologists. In addition to drug therapy, over the last two decades invasive therapies have taken on greater importance, especially bypass operations performed by cardiac surgeons and balloon dilatation carried out by interventional cardiologists, these days mostly involving in the implantation of stents. Other issues in contemporary cardiology, apart from CHD and cardiac insufficiency, are cardiac arrhythmia, including atrial fibrillation, tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation. Today, inflammatory heart diseases such as endocarditis, myocarditis and pericarditis, or rheumatic valvular defects, have receded into the background, while surgeons increasingly perform heart transplants or implant artificial hearts and cardiac valves at medical centers that specialize in heart, lung and vascular diseases.